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Interior Design

Interior design is the art and science

of enhancing the interiors, sometimes

including the exterior, of a space or

building, to achieve

Interior design is the art and science

of enhancing the interiors, sometimes

including the exterior, of a space or

building, to achieve a healthier and

more aesthetically pleasing

environment for the end user.



An interior designer is someone who

plans, researches, coordinates, and

manages such projects. Interior

design is a multifaceted profession

that includes conceptual development,

space planning, site inspections,

programming and research,

communicating with the stakeholders

of a project, construction management, and execution of the design.


Interior design implies that there is more of an emphasis on planning, functional design and the effective use of space, as compared to interior decorating. An interior designer can undertake projects that include arranging the basic layout of spaces within a building as well as projects that require an understanding of technical issues such as window and door positioning, acoustics, and lighting. Although an interior designer may create the layout of a space, they may not alter load-bearing walls without having their designs stamped for approval by a structural engineer. Interior designers often work directly with architects, engineers and contractors.


Interior designers must be highly skilled in order to create interior environments that are functional, safe, and adhere to building codes, regulations and ADA requirements. They go beyond the selection of colour palettes and furnishings and apply their knowledge to the development of construction documents, occupancy loads, healthcare regulations and sustainable design principles, as well as the management and coordination of professional services including mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and life safety—all to ensure that people can live, learn or work in an innocuous environment that is also aesthetically pleasing.

Someone may wish to specialize and develop technical knowledge specific to one area or type of interior design, such as residential design, commercial design, hospitality design, healthcare design, universal design, exhibition design, furniture design, and spatial branding. Interior design is a creative profession that is relatively new, constantly evolving, and often confusing to the public. It is not an artistic pursuit and relies on research from many fields to provide a well-trained understanding of how people are influenced by their environments.

Residential design is the design of the interior of private residences. As this type of design is very specific for individual situations, the needs and wants of the individual are paramount in this area of interior design. The interior designer may work on the project from the initial planning stage or may work on the remodelling of an existing structure. It is often a very involved process that takes months to fine-tune and create a space with the vision of the client.

Commercial design encompasses a wide range of subspecialties.

  • Retail: includes malls and shopping centres, department stores, speciality stores, visual merchandising, and showrooms.

  • Visual and spatial branding: The use of space as a medium to express a corporate brand.

  • Corporate: office design for any kind of business such as banks.

  • Healthcare: the design of hospitals, assisted living facilities, medical offices, dentist offices, psychiatric facilities, laboratories, and medical specialist facilities.

  • Hospitality and recreation: include hotels, motels, resorts, cruise ships, cafes, bars, casinos, nightclubs, theatres, music and concert halls, opera houses, sports venues, restaurants, gyms, health clubs and spas, etc.

  • Institutional: government offices, financial institutions (banks and credit unions), schools and universities, religious facilities, etc.

  • Industrial facilities: manufacturing and training facilities as well as import and export facilities.

  • Exhibition: includes museums, galleries, and exhibition halls, especially the design for showrooms and exhibition galleries.

  • Traffic building: includes bus stations, subway stations, airports, piers, etc.

  • Sports: includes gyms, stadiums, swimming rooms, basketball halls, etc.

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